After a meal, the body responds to a rise in blood sugar by secreting insulin. Insulin lowers blood sugar, or glucose, by increasing the rate that glucose is taken up by cells throughout the body. Declines in blood glucose, which occur during food deprivation or exercise, cause the release of glucagon. Glucagon stimulates the release of glucose stored in body tissues as glycogen. If blood sugar levels fall sharply or if a person is under stress, it may result in the release of epinephrine (adrenaline) and corticosteroids (cortisol) by the adrenal glands. These hormones provide quicker breakdown of stored glucose for extra energy during a crisis or increased need.

     A great deal of Americans tax these control mechanisms through poor diet and lifestyle choices. The average American consumes 100 pounds of sucrose (table sugar) and 40 pounds of corn syrup each year.  As a result, diabetes and hypoglycemia are becoming increasingly more common. Refined sugar has been linked to aggressive/criminal behavior, PMS, migraine, atherosclerosis, intermittent claudication, angina, metabolic syndrome, and hyperactivity in children.

 Obesity and Blood Sugar Imbalance

     Obesity is strongly linked to blood sugar disturbances because in obesity, there is a decreased sensitivity to insulin. When the body isn’t responding to insulin, blood sugar remains high and can cause excessive weight gain even without overeating. Obesity precedes 90% of adult onset diabetes (DMII). Some signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus include excess urination, hunger, fatigue, weight loss, vaginal itching, visual changes, poor wound healing, hyperpigmented skin tags, and chronic candida. 

Lack of fiber, high sugar intake, too much iron or free radicals can also contribute to the exhaustion and destruction of the insulin producing cells of the pancreas, leading to DM II.

     Under the circumstances of insulin resistance and high blood sugar, fat tends to accumulate in the abdominal area, salt and water are stored at a greater rate, food cravings increase, acne and polycystic ovaries increase, blood vessels are narrowed, cholesterol production increases in the liver, atherosclerosis and plaques increase, and vitamins K and C are inhibited, leading to weak vessels and connective tissue. The combination of insulin resistance, high blood pressure, central/abdominal obesity, tendency toward blood clot formation, increased blood lipid levels and generalized inflammation is referred to as “Metabolic Syndrome”.

     Hypoglycemia occurs when blood sugar peaks and insulin decreases blood sugar levels to lower levels than the body would like. This can also happen in the early morning or when someone hasn’t eaten or exercises hard. Signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include headaches, foggy thinking, extreme fatigue, especially a few hours after eating, shakiness, sweats, irritability, fear/panic attacks, dizziness upon standing, angina, extreme hunger, crying spells, anger fits and heart palpitations. Typically, patients with hypoglycemia feel better with food. Over time, if hypoglycemia continues, it may develop into insulin resistance or type 2 Diabetes.

 Ways to counteract blood sugar dysregulation:

  • Eat smaller, more frequent meals, at least every 3 hours, balanced in protein/complex carbohydrates/healthy fats.
  • Avoid simple sugars, saturated/hydrogenated fats, and starchy vegetables.
  • Include protein with each meal. Aim for at least 20 grams at breakfast.
  • Eat plenty of fiber to decrease rapid rises in blood sugar. Legumes, oat bran, nuts, seeds, psyllium seed husks, pears, apples, and most vegetables are high in fiber and should be consumed with every meal.
  • Supplement with chromium or glucose tolerance factor (GTF). Chromium helps insulin sensitivity, allowing glucose to be transported in and out of cells more easily.
  • Start exercising. Exercise improves many aspects of glucose metabolism, including enhancing insulin sensitivity, improving glucose tolerance in existing diabetics, and increasing tissue chromium concentrations. People with blood sugar issues should try to get some form of exercise on a daily basis.
  • If you tend to wake up in the middle of the night due to hunger, eat a balanced complex carbohydrate/protein snack before bed.

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